Maine: An Encyclopedia
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Fairfield

Location Map for Fairfield

Fairfield Center, with its impressive church and grange hall, is at the crossroads of routes 23 & 104. The old Lawrence High School is near the veterans park with its gazebo and shade trees. See photos. In the fall, a popular destination for apples and pumpkins is The Apple Farm. Fairfield, incorporated in 1788 in Somerset County, now hosts Kennebec Valley Community College. Continue reading

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Fairfield, John

John Fairfield, courtesy Maine State Museum

(1797-1847), a U.S. Representative and a Senator from Maine, was born in Saco on January 30, 1797, attended the Saco schools, Thornton Academy, and Bowdoin College. He studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1826, and began his practice … Continue reading

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Falmouth

Location Map for Falmouth

In 1658, a town named Falmouth was created but was destroyed by Indians in 1689. In 1718 a town was again established. Much of the original area was later distributed to new towns: Cape Elizabeth, Portland, and Westbrook. Falmouth is a rapidly growing suburban community, having increased over 35% in population between 1990 and 2000. Percival Baxter donated Mackworth Island to the state, now a nature preserve in the town. Continue reading

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Farley, Ephraim Wilder

(1817-1880) a U.S. Representative was born in Newcastle on August 29, 1817. He attended the common schools and was graduated from Bowdoin College in 1836. He studied law, was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Newcastle. A member … Continue reading

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Farmingdale

Location Map for Farmingdale

On the Kennebec River just north of Gardiner, it is a residential community serving the Augusta-Gardiner capital area. Several large homes overlook the Kennebec River. See photos. West of the main street, in a suburban-rural area, it touches on Jamies Pond Wildlife Management Area at Jimmies Pond near the Outlet Road. Continue reading

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Farmington

Location Map for Farmington

From a trading center in the late 18th century, it saw rapid growth through the Civil War, largely with designation as the shire town of Franklin County, arrival of a few manufacturers, and founding of several educational institutions. It boasts a highly rated small college: the University of Maine at Farmington, near downtown. Originally the Farmington State Normal School, it was established in 1864. The town is the birthplace of renowned vocalist Lillian Nordica; the home of inventor Chester Greenwood and U.S. Representative Robert Goodenow. Continue reading

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Farwell, Nathan Allen

Nathan Farwell, courtesy Maine State Archives

(1812-1893), a U. S. Senator from Maine and cousin of Owen Lovejoy, was born in Unity on February 24, 1812. He attended the common schools; taught school (1832-1833), moved to East Thomaston in 1834, and was involved in the manufacture … Continue reading

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Fayette

Location Map for Fayette

the most westerly town in Kennebec County, was named for the Marquis de Lafayette, the French nobleman who helped the Americans during the Revolution. Settled permanently beginning in 1781, it was incorporated in 1795. The town has substantial frontage on several large ponds: David, Tilton and Parker in the northeast, Echo and Lovejoy in the east, and Mosher Pond in the northwest near Twelve Corners. Continue reading

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Fellows, Frank

(1889-1951) a U.S. Representative was born in Bucksport on November 7, 1889. He attended the public schools, East Maine Conference Seminary in Bucksport, and the University of Maine at Orono. He was graduated from the University of Maine Law School, … Continue reading

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Fernald, Bert M.

Bert M. Fernald (courtesy Maine State Museum)

(1858-1926) a Senator from Maine, was born in West Poland, Androscoggin County, April 3, 1858. He attended the public schools, Hebron Academy, and a business and preparatory school in Boston. Fernald taught school, was elected supervisor of schools in at … Continue reading

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Ferries

Steve Longley "Ferryman" (2007)

Inland Ferries One atypical ferry operates on the Kennebec River at Caratunk, where Appalachian Trail hikers are provided sake passage across. Crossing rivers was important to commerce and transportation even in the early decades of the 20th century. Some were … Continue reading

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Fessenden, Samuel Clement

(1815-1882), brother of Thomas Amory Deblois Fessenden and William Pitt Fessenden, was a U.S. Representative. He was born in New Gloucester on March 7, 1815, pursued classical studies and was graduated from Bowdoin College in 1834 and from Bangor Theological … Continue reading

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Fessenden, Thomas

Thomas Amory DeBlois Fessenden (1826-1868), brother of Samuel Clement Fessenden and William Pitt Fessenden, was a U.S. Representative born in Portland on January 23, 1826. He attended North Yarmouth Academy and Dartmouth College, was graduated from Bowdoin College in 1845. … Continue reading

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Fessenden, William Pitt

William Pitt Fessenden, courtesy Maine State Museum

(1806-1869) (brother of Samuel Clement Fessenden and Thomas Amory Deblois Fessenden), was a U.S. Representative and a U.S. Senator from Maine. He was born in Boscawen, Merrimack County, New Hampshire on October 16, 1806. Fessenden attended the common schools, graduated … Continue reading

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Field Hockey

Field Hockey Game (2003)

  Consecutive Championships School No. Years Skowhegan (A) 8 2001-2008 Dexter (C) 4 2000-2003 Year Class A Class B Class C 1976 Bonny Eagle Livermore Falls Katahdin 1977 Bonny Eagle Lake Region Telstar 1978 Bonny Eagle Madawaska Telstar 1979 Waterville … Continue reading

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Fisher, Jonathan

Jonathan Fisher House (2003)

(1768-1847) was, according to The Art of Jonathan Fisher, 1768-1847, “an uncommon common man, the nineteenth century pastor of a little Maine town. More than his occupation or the locale may suggest, Fisher was a universal man–inventor, farmer, architect and … Continue reading

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Fisheries, Commercial

Fishing Vessel, Cundy

In 1950, Maine had record seafood landings of 356,266,000 pounds without aquaculture. Maine ranked among the top seafood producing States. In 2009, the last year available for national seafood landings, Maine ranked 11th in pounds landed and 3rd in value. … Continue reading

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Flagstaff Township

Location Map for Dead River and Flagstaff Lake

[FLAG-staff] plantation was formally organized on March 5, 1895, though it had been organized for election purposes in 1851, 1865 and 1870. Flagstaff and nearby Dead River Plantation were inundated with water from the Central Maine Power Company’s Long Falls … Continue reading

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Fletchers Landing Township

Town Line Sign for Fletchers Landing (2013)

This forested, rural unorganized township in Hancock County has few residents and no major village. Fletchers Landing is a small village on Graham Lake, a large water body north of Ellsworth. Continue reading

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Flye, Edwin

(1817-1886) a U.S. Representative was born in Newcastle on March 4, 1817, attended the common schools and Lincoln Academy. He engaged in mercantile pursuits and shipbuilding. A member of the Maine House of Representatives in 1858, he served for many … Continue reading

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Folklore

The Maine Folklife Center collected interviews (recorded on paper and audio and moving image media) from the 1960’s until early in the 21st Century.  Founded by University of Maine professor Edward “Sandy” Ives and located at the university, the Center … Continue reading

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Football

Scrimmaging (2001)

Consecutive Championships School No. Year Marshwood 4 1983-1986 Ties for championships are noted at right with “/”; “CC” denotes “co-champions.” Year Class A Class B Class C Class D 1950 Lewiston Saint Louis 1951 South Portland Skowhegan Dexter 1952 Portland … Continue reading

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Forest City Township

Location Map for Forest City Township

in eastern Washington County was created as a plantation on February 15, 1887 from a portion of the town of Eaton. That town no longer exists, since its remaining portion was annexed to Danforth. Forest City was an organized municipality … Continue reading

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Forestry

Georgia Pacific Clear Cut, May, 1973 (U.S. EPA photo)

is the science of managing forest resources for human benefit. Maine has had a long history of using forest resources and an equally long history of controversy over whether proper management of those resources has been adequate. Continue reading

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Forks Plantation, The

Location Map for The Forks

The Forks village is at the confluence of the Kennebec and Dead Rivers. Appalachian Trail southbound hikers enter from Caratunk at the southeast corner at the very southern tip of Moxie Pond, trekking over Middle Mountain, then north of Pleasant Pond over Pleasant Pond Mountain before reentering Caratunk. Continue reading

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Fort Baldwin

Fort Baldwin (2001)

is located on Sabino Hill in Phippsburg. Constructed between 1905 and 1912, three batteries are hidden in the woods overlooking the mouth of the Kennebec River and old Fort Popham. During World War I, it housed two artillery companies guarding … Continue reading

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Fort Fairfield

Location Map for Fort Fairfield

Fort Fairfield, established during the Aroostook War, took its name from Governor John Fairfield. The original fort (1839-1843), a duplicate of Fort Kent, was dismantled in 1862. A replica was built in 1976. The 1875 Canadian-Pacific Railroad station is part of the Railroad Museum at the old Bangor & Aroostook rail yard. The town, in the heart of potato country, hosts the Potato Blossom Festival in July. Continue reading

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Fort Gorges

Fort Gorges in Casco Bay (2014)

The structure was begun in 1858, a year after Congress authorized funds, on Hog Island in Portland Harbor. By the end of the Civil War it was outdated with the invention of the rifle cannon that could destroy its granite … Continue reading

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Fort Kent

Location Map for Fort Kent

A fort, named for Governor Edward Kent, was constructed between 1838 and 1840 to assert Maine’s authority and protect settlers during the bloodless Aroostook War. Populated largely by descendents of Acadians fleeing British persecution, French is frequently the language of choice. Continue reading

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Fort Knox

Fort Knox from Bucksport, c. 1940

named for General Henry Knox, is located in the town of Prospect on the banks of the Penobscot River across from Bucksport. The British controlled this area of the Maine coast during the War of 1812 and during the tensions … Continue reading

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Fort Popham

stands on Hunnewell Point in Phippsburg at the mouth of the Kennebec River. This semi-circular structure was begun in 1862 but never completed. It was then that the Union realized how vulnerable the area was to potential British incursions in … Continue reading

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Fort Pownall

Penobscot Bay at the mouth of the Penobscot River near Fort Pownall (2001)

stood on Fort Point in Stockton Springs on the Penobscot River. In 1626 the English set up a trading post at the mouth of the Penobscot River. The French and Indians attacked with great ferocity. In ten years it was … Continue reading

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Fort Western

Fort Western complex with the Main House (2001)

In 1625, the Plymouth Colony Pilgrims sailed to the Kennebec River in hopes of establishing a trading relationship with area Indians. By 1628 the Pilgrims were operating a year-round trading post just south of where Fort Western now stands. The … Continue reading

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Fort William Henry

Fort William Henry (2001)

is located in the town of Bristol, Lincoln County, in the Pemaquid area. Built in 1692, it was destroyed in 1696 by the French under the leadership of Baron de Castin. The tower, and parade grounds are replicas built in … Continue reading

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Fort Williams

Sign: Brief History of Fort Williams (2001)

is located in Cape Elizabeth and its grounds constitute Fort Williams City Park. In 1873 construction had begun on earthworks fortifications and was known as the Battery at Portland Head. By 1892, concrete batteries had been placed over the original … Continue reading

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Foster, Benen, Revolutionary War Deposition

Map: 1785 Survey of Machias Bay

On this fourth day of December A.D. 1832 personally appeared in open court before the Hon. John Dickinson Judge of the Court of Probate now sitting, Benen Foster a Resident of the Parish of Wakefield, County of York Province of … Continue reading

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Foster, Stephen Clark

Stephen C. Forster, courtesy Maine State Archives

(1799-1872) a U.S. Representative was born in Machias on December 24, 1799. He attended the common schools, learned the blacksmith’s trade and subsequently became a shipbuilder. Foster was member of the Maine House of Representatives from 1834 to 1837 and … Continue reading

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Frankfort

Location Map for Frankfort

Named for the German city, and bombed by the British in 1814, Frankfort was once a shipbuilding community on the Penobscot River. Granite cutting and shipping was an important industry up to the early 20th century. Mount Waldo supplied the product and Marsh Bay, in the Penobscot River, provided the means of shipping it. Continue reading

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Franklin

Location Map for Franklin

Blueberries and Christmas trees are major crops in this still growing rural community. The Taunton Bay Islands nature preserve consists of two small islands. Named for Benjamin Franklin, the town lies east of Ellsworth. Continue reading

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Franklin County

Map of Maine Counties and Baxter Park

located in west central Maine, was formed from towns and land previously belonging to Kennebec, Oxford, and Somerset counties on May 9, 1838. Smaller adjustments were made during the following fourteen years. See an 1861 map of the county in … Continue reading

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Franklin County Nature Preserves

Pond in Bigelow Preserve (2003)

Bald Mountain Public Reserved Land, Rangeley. Bald Mountain’s one mile trail to the summit offers panoramic views of Rangeley, Cupsuptic and Mooselookmeguntic lakes and the Height of Land. Especially popular in the fall with autumn colors, the area contains more … Continue reading

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Freedom

Location Map for Freedom

in Waldo County, settled in 1794 by Revolutionary War soldier Stephen Smith, was incorporated in 1813.The three acre Freedom Park, near the center of town, occupies the original grounds of Freedom Academy. Sandy Pond, also known as Freedom Pond, has a boat launch for easy access. Freedom village is at its northeast tip. Continue reading

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Freeport

Location Map for Freeport

is a popular center of “outlet” stores, including the legendary L. L. Bean, which has a virtual campus of retail buildings. See video and photos. It was named, say some, for Sir Andrew Freeport, a character in Addison’s Spectator Papers. Freeport-built vessels Lafayette and Blen were captured and burned by Confederate raiders. Arctic explorer Donald B. MacMillan lived in Freeport, as did a young John Gould, later author, humorist, and newspaper editor. Continue reading

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French, Ezra

(1810-1880) a U.S. Representative was born in Landaff, Grafton County, New Hampshire, September 23, 1810. He attended the common schools and pursued an academic course. He studied law in Bath and Plymouth, New Hampshire, was admitted to the bar in … Continue reading

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French, George

Schooner and Children at Stonington (c. 1940)

(1882-1970) was the recipient of numerous American and foreign awards for his distinguished photography. His work was selected by such firms as American Bell Telephone Company for use in posters, and for many years his photographs were familiar to Americans, … Continue reading

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Frenchboro

Location Map for Frenchboro and Long Island

Settled in the early 1800s, the island had a population of 19 in 1820, when fishing and some logging sustained the community. Other than for a period of pulpwood harvesting, few roads were constructed outside Lunt Harbor. See amateur film, video and photos. While many Maine islands struggle to maintain a critical mass of population, Frenchboro experienced a substantial reversal of three decades of decline when the 2010 U.S. Census confirmed sixty-one people as resident. Continue reading

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Frenchville

Location Map for Frenchville

in Aroostook County, incorporated in 1869 under the name Dickeyville. The name was change to Frenchville in 1871 in recognition of the French-Acadian population of the town. Its northern border is with Canada along a great bend in the St. John River. A potato farming community, it has lost population over the past three decades. The Frenchville Historical Society’s “Caboose” is part of a railroad station full scale exhibit. Continue reading

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Friendship

Location Map for Friendship

Settled in 1750, its boat building heritage began soon after and became best known for its specialty – the Friendship Sloop. See photos. The town, whose islands extend far out into Muscongus Bay, hosts the Friendship Sloop Races each summer, organized by the Friendship Sloop Society. The harbor, with its wharfs, moorings, and public landing, is a central economic and social focal point for the community. Continue reading

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Frye Island

Location Map for Frye Island

The Island once had been governed by a semi-autonomous village corporation. It is primarily a summer vacation home destination. See photos. The Frye Island Ferry operates between the end of Raymond Neck, in the town of Raymond, to the ferry dock on the island. Vehicles, supplies, and people make the trip in about fifteen minutes every half hour. Continue reading

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Frye, William Pierce

(1830-1911) a U.S. Representative and a U.S. Senator, grandfather of Wallace Humphrey White, Jr., was born in Lewiston on September 2, 1830. He attended the public schools in Lewiston and graduated from Bowdoin College in 1850; studied law, was admitted … Continue reading

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Fryeburg

Location Map for Fryeburg

a town in Oxford County, incorporated in 1777 on the site of an Indian settlement known as Pequawket. See photos. Daniel Webster was a teacher at Fryeburg Academy in 1802. Native American Molly Ockett was born about 1740 into the Pigwacket tribe. The Battle of Lovewell’s Pond was one long day in 1725, during which the leader of the white volunteers, Captain Lovewell, was slain along with the Indian leader Pangus. Continue reading

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Fuller, Thomas James Duncan

(1808-1876) a U.S. Representative was born in Hardwick, Caledonia County, Vermont, March 17, 1808. He attended the common schools, studied law, was admitted to the bar and began his practice in Calais. Elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-first and … Continue reading

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Furbish, Catherine “Kate”

Furbish Lousewort

(1834-1931) made her mark in history by being the first botanic artist in the “Garden of Maine.” The “Posey-Woman,” as she was called by the French Canadians in upper Maine, was determined to collect, classify, and draw all the plants … Continue reading

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Hancock County Nature Preserves

Barred Island, Deer Isle. 2 acre island with spruce-fir and shrub-cover and extensive granite shore ledges. Accessible by landing on inter-tidal sandbar or across private property with permission of Goose Cove Lodge owners. There are no trails; walk along the … Continue reading

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House Finch

Male House Finch (2007)

This bird is found year-round in all but northern Maine. The male is similar to the Purple Finch, except that the latter has a tuft of feathers on its head. The male Pine Grosbeak, another look-a-like, is larger than the … Continue reading

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Mount Desert, Fires of 1947

Through the summer and into the fall of 1947 Maine received only 50% of its normal rainfall. Vegetation dries; water supplies dwindled. But the autumn rains never came and by mid-October, Mount Desert Island was experiencing the driest conditions ever … Continue reading

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Red Fox

The average weight of a male red fox is about 12 lbs; females are slightly smaller. They become sexually mature at 10 to 11 months. They breed annually from December through March. The average litter, born during March and early … Continue reading

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South Freeport

Freeport Harbor (2014)

South Freeport is on the broad Harraseeket River leading to Casco Bay. Once a shipbuilding center, it now hosts the town’s public wharf, a marina, a boatyard, and the Harraseeket Yacht Club. Winslow Park on the Bay provides recreation and camping opportunities. Continue reading

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