Maine: An Encyclopedia
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Campobello Island

Campobello Island with its lighthouse, May, 1973, U.S. EPA photo National Archives # NWDNS-412-DA-7873

[cam-poo-BEL-loo] is an island in Canada, joined by a causeway to Lubec in Washington County. Acquired by  FDR’s father James Roosevelt in 1883, the house was ready for the family in 1885.  It became the summer retreat of Franklin D. … Continue reading

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Rabbits

Map: Cottontail Rabbit and Snowshoe Hare Habitat

The New England cottontail rabbit was, in 2011, a candidate for federal listing as a threatened species. Less than 300 rabbits are believed to be in Maine, most in the south.  Threats include the loss of young forest and thickets … Continue reading

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Rabies

Chart: Rabies by County 1994-2010

What Should You do if You have been Exposed? If you have been bitten or scratched by a wild animal, or by a pet or farm animal that has been behaving oddly, follow these steps: 1. Animals must be killed … Continue reading

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Railroads

Maine Rail Map

A Brief History of Railroads Maine Railroad technology was first developed in Great Britain, and included Richard Trevithick’s steam locomotive of 1804 and George Stevenson’s locomotive “Rocket” of 1829. In addition to the standard gauge (width) lines reviewed here, narrow … Continue reading

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Railroads, Narrow Gauge

Narrow Gauge Railroad Map

Starting in the latter part of the 19th century, Maine had a unique system of railroads that ran on rails only two feet apart. Eventually five of these railroads served rural areas in western and central Maine. They were the … Continue reading

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Rainbow Township

Rainbow Stream

The township, also known as T2 R11 WELS, is immediately adjacent to T2 R10 WELS, host to the next northerly section of the AT. Traveling south hikers encounter the three mile long Rainbow Lake that arches over the northeastern corner … Continue reading

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Randall, Benjamin

1789-1859) a U.S. Representative, was born in Topsham on November 14, 1789, he pursued an academic course, was graduated from Bowdoin College in 1809. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1812 and began his practice in Bath. … Continue reading

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Randolph

Location Map for Randolph

A suburb of Augusta, Randolph, tiny in terms of land area, lies on the east bank of the Kennebec River near Gardiner. A pedestrian trail extends from the Kennebec River through Randolph and Chelsea. The trail once linked the river and the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, now Togus Veterans Home. That was during the 1800’s by the narrow-gauge (two-foot wide tracks) Kennebec Central Railroad. Continue reading

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Rangeley

Rangely Lake (2001)

The town is at the center of the Rangeley Lakes Region with many hotels, campsites, boat launching facilities and recreational opportunities. See photos. The region was the setting for Louise Dickenson Rich’s 1942 book We Took to the Woods. It hosts Hunter Cove nature preserve and Bald Mountain public reserved land. Continue reading

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Rangeley Plantation

Location Map for Rangeley Plantation

Just south of Rangeley, the plantation’s South Shore Road runs along the south shore of Rangeley Lake and east-west across the northern section of the plantation. Rangeley Lake State Park occupies part of the shore near South Cove. Access to the Bald Mountain Trail is from the park. Continue reading

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Rank of Maine, Accountability of the Courts

Scales of Justice

State Rank WASHINGTON 1 CONNECTICUT 2 PENNSYLVANIA 3 ARIZONA 4 CALIFORNIA 5 TEXAS 6 INDIANA 7 NEVADA 7 MICHIGAN 9 OREGON 9 RHODE ISLAND 9 WISCONSIN 9 ILLINOIS 13 NEBRASKA 13 NEW HAMPSHIRE 13 WEST VIRGINIA 13 FLORIDA 17 MARYLAND … Continue reading

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Rank of Maine, Economy

YEAR RANK MAINE U.S. Agriculture Land in Farms, Percent 1992 43 15% 43.6% 1997 40 6.7% 42.2% 2002 49 6.9% 41.4% 2007 49 6.8% 40.8% Land in Farms, Acres 2000 43 1,270,000 943,090,000 1992 43 1,258,297 945,531,506 1997 42 1,211,648 … Continue reading

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Rank of Maine, Education

Average Maine Teacher Salaries

Compared to all other states and the District of Columbia, Maine ranks relatively high when considering the number of students per teacher and on the amount spent per pupil. However, Maine ranks very low when comparing teacher salaries.  It does … Continue reading

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Rank of Maine, Education, Graduation Rates

Big Schools Size and Graduation Rate

The U.S. Department of Education released a report November 26, 2012 “detailing state four-year high school graduation rates in 2010-11 – the first year for which all states used a common, rigorous measure.” The new calculation, the Department emphasized, is … Continue reading

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Rank of Maine, Election Turnout

For half a century, Maine has had a relatively high voter turnout in presidential elections. In every presidential election from 1960 to 2008, Maine’s turnout, based on its voting age population, has exceeded the national average, frequently by 10% or more. In 2012 it was again ranked second (to perennial rival Minnesota by 0.4%) as it was in 2000 and 2008. Continue reading

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Rank of Maine, Geography

Maine, while the largest in New England, is relatively small compared to other states.  It abundant lakes, rivers and streams contribute to a high ranking for water resources. Unlike many western state with huge proportions of land owned by the … Continue reading

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Rank of Maine, Government Revenue and Spending

YEAR RANK MAINE U.S.1 Federal Aid Federal Aid Per Capita 1988 12 $551 n.a. 2007 11 $1,936 n.a. 2009 9 $2,559 n.a. Local Government Local Taxes Per Capita 1996 15 $1,074 n.a. 2008 22 $1,616 $1,777 Property Taxes, as % … Continue reading

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Rank of Maine, Health and Obesity

Maine appears to be near the national average in terms of the percent of its populations in various categories that are obese, or overweight and obese, or who have diabetes or hypertension – both linked to being overweight. YEAR RANK … Continue reading

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Rank of Maine, Population

Maine is a relative small, sparsely settled state when it comes to population.  Its people are predominantly  white, of European-origin, with relatively few members of minority ethnic or racial groups. The state ranks about 40th in total population, population density, … Continue reading

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Rank of Maine, Public Safety

Maine ranks very low in crime and prisoner incarcerations. With respect to crime rates, the Morgan Quitno Press, which produces state-by-state rankings on a variety of subjects, produced rankings of the “safest states” based on a formula that measures how … Continue reading

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Rank of Maine, Social Indicators

YEAR RANK MAINE U.S. Status of Children 1=High In Poverty 2000 18 13.7% 16.6% 2007 31 15.4% 18.0% 2010 36 17.8% 21.6% At/Below 200% Poverty 19953 20 38.3% – 20013 25 34.5% 38.1% 2010 34 36.3% 43.2% At/Below 200% Poverty, … Continue reading

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Rasles, Sebastian

Father Rasle Monument (2001)

was a Jesuit priest killed by the British in an attack on the Native American village in Norridgewock on August 23, 1724. Born January 28, 1657 in France, he attended college then taught Greek at Nimes in Southern France. There … Continue reading

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Raymond

Location Map for Raymond

The main village is located at the head of the large, well protected, Jordan Bay on the shore of Sebago Lake. Adjacent Raymond Neck extends over four miles into the Lake to form the Bay. Raymond’s “welcome” sign entices fishing enthusiasts to the “Home of the Landlocked Salmon,” which inhabit the lake. Nathaniel Hawthorne spent summers at his mother’s home. Continue reading

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Readfield

Lake and Mountains in Readfield (2002)

Kents Hill School was established here initially as the Maine Wesleyan Seminary in 1824. See photos. Readfield is the birthplace of two governors: Jonathan G. Hunton and Dr. John Hubbard. Another governor and member of Congress, Anson P. Morrill, lived at Readfield Corners. Its Kennebec County Fair has been held annually since 1856. Meeting House Common was the site of militia musters in the 1800’s. Continue reading

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Redington Township

1956 Topographic Map of Redington Township

The township is northwest of Mount Abram Township, host to the next northerly section of the Appalachian Trail. Redington is remote from other communities.  Its interior is accessible only by traveling south off Route 16 in Coplin Plantation along secondary … Continue reading

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Reed Plantation

Location Map for Reed Plantation

The village is located on Maine Route 17 near the Mattawamkeag River and on the Wytopitlock stream. Other than Route 17, which runs through the through the western portion north to U.S. Route 2A, the Bancroft Road travels northeast from Wytopitlock to the Bancroft town line. These are the only improved roads. Two lots of Maine Public Reserved Land lie within the plantation: the 996-acre Thompson Deadwater Lot and the 539-acre Central-Wytopitlock Lot. Continue reading

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Reed, Isaac

(1809-1887) a U.S. Representative, was born in Waldoboro on August 22, 1809, prepared for college at Bloomfield Academy in what is now Skowhegan, but by preference became a merchant-ship builder. He also engaged in banking. Town clerk of Waldoboro (1836-1838), … Continue reading

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Reed, John H.

John H. Reed (courtesy Maine State Archives)

(1921-2012) the son of a prominent Fort Fairfield potato grower, was born in that town on January 5, 1921. He attended local schools and graduated from the University of Maine in 1942. Upon graduation, John Hathaway Reed entered the U.S. … Continue reading

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Reed, Thomas Brackett

Thomas Brackett Reed, courtesy Maine State Museum

(1839-1902) was a Representative from Maine and a powerful Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. He was born in Portland on October 18, 1839, attended the public schools, was graduated from Bowdoin College in 1860, and then studied law. … Continue reading

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Reich, Wilhelm

Orgonon in Rangeley (2001)

A Freudian analyst born in Austria in 1897, Reich was trying to prove the energetic reality of the “Libido” which Sigmund Freud had coined. He worked on his own version of biophysics for many years but by 1933 he left … Continue reading

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Revolutionary War Deposition of Caleb Gordon

Map: Wilderness Route Followed by Caleb Gordon

I Caleb Gordon, aged Sixty three years, a citizen of the United States, born in Brentwood in the State of New Hampshire on oath testify & declare (being now resident in Augusta in the District of Maine) that in April … Continue reading

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Revolutionary War Deposition of James Boaz

I, James Boaz of Portland in the County of Cumberland, on oath declare and say that I was born in Plymouth in Massachusetts which was my place of residence when I enlisted at Cambridge in the year 1780 or thereabouts … Continue reading

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Revolutionary War Deposition of Jonathan Knox

I Jonathan Knox of Berwick in the County of York, and State of Maine, aged Eighty years, do upon Oath declare, in order to obtain the benefit of a Resolve of the Legislature of Maine passed March 17 1835, entitled … Continue reading

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Revolutionary War, Veterans

Dubros Times Selected Depositions of Maine  Revolutionary War Veterans This is the Introduction to the publication named above and edited by Sylvia J. Sherman of the Maine State Archives. It provides a context for the depositions selected here. More are … Continue reading

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Rice, John Hovey

(1816-1911) a U.S. Representative was born in Mount Vernon on February 5, 1816. He attended the common schools. A clerk in the office of the register of deeds in Augusta (1831-1841), he engaged in business and became a deputy sheriff. … Continue reading

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Rich, Louise Dickinson

Selected Works Happy the Land (1946/1998) Start of the Trail (1949) My Neck of the Woods (1950) Trail to the North (1952) Only Parent (1953) Innocence Under the Elms (1955) The Coast of Maine (1956/1962/1970/1975/1993) Peninsula (1958/1971) First Book of … Continue reading

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Richards, Laura E.

Laura Richards House (2003)

Selected Works Sketches and Scraps (1881) Five Mice in a Mouse Trap (1881) The Joyous Story of Toto (1885) Toto’s Merry Winter (1887) Queen Hildegarde (1889) In My Nursery (1890) Captain January (1890) Hildegarde’s Holiday (1891) Hildegarde’s Home (1892) Melody … Continue reading

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Richmond

Location Map for Richmond

The main village is located on the west side of the Kennebec River, just south of Gardiner on Maine Route 24, where the river splits to form Swan Island. See photos.Benedict Arnold’s expedition, having first landed at Swan Island in the river across from the town, passed by the remnants of Fort Richmond. The town has a substantial collection of grand houses, including several Greek Revival specimens. Peacock Beach State Park is near the historic Peacock Tavern on U.S. Route 201. Continue reading

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Riley TWP

Location Map for Riley Township

a township in Oxford County, just north of the town of Gilead on the border with New Hampshire. It is home to no lakes, few people, several mountains in the Mahoosuc Range, and the source of Sunday River. It is the entry point for the Appalachian Trail in Maine in a section of the state’s Public Reserved Land. From here it is 281.4 miles to go to reach the summit of Mount Katahdin. Continue reading

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Ripley

Location Map for Ripley

Ripley Pond, once known as Rogers Pond, extends two miles north to south. Ripley Village is at the southern end. The outlet of the pond, Ripley Stream, was the site of two sawmills and a grist mill in the late 19th century. Ripley Village is at the southern end. West Ripley village is at the junction of West Ripley Road and Todds Corner Road. Continue reading

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Ripley, Eleazar W.

Eleazar Wheelock Ripley (1782-1839), brother of James Wheelock Ripley, was born in Hanover, N.H., April 15, 1782, was a U. S. Representative from Louisiana. He was graduated from Dartmouth College in 1800, studied law, and was admitted to the bar. … Continue reading

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Ripley, James W.

(1786-1835), brother of Eleazar Wheelock Ripley and a U.S. Representative, was born in Hanover, New Hampshire on March 12, 1786. He attended the common schools and Fryeburg Academy, studied law, was admitted to the bar and began his practice in … Continue reading

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Rivers

Kennebec River (2002)

  Water abounds in Maine. It has 73 rivers longer than 20 miles, 39 rivers that drain at least 200 square miles, 51 lakes that have an area of at least five miles, 32 civil divisions that contain at least … Continue reading

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Robbinston

Location Map for Robbinston

has as its eastern border is the scenic St. Croix River and Passamaquoddy Bay. The main village is on U.S. Route 1 along the shore, where most of its population is located. Most of the western portion is undeveloped, with unimproved roads and several lakes and ponds. Continue reading

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Roberts, Kenneth L.

Selected Works Arundel : A Chronicle of the Province of Maine and of the Secret Expedition led by Benedict Arnold against Quebec (1930) The Battle of Cowpens: The Great Morale-Builder (1957) Black Magic : an account of its beneficial use … Continue reading

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Robie, Frederick

Frederick Robie (courtesy Maine State Museum)

(1822-1912 ) born in Gorham on August 12, 1822, was descended from early immigrants. Both his paternal and maternal ancestors had emigrated from England to America in the 1600’s. He graduated from Bowdoin College in 1841 after attending Gorham Academy … Continue reading

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Robinson, Edward

(1796-1857) a U.S. Representative, was born in Cushing November 25, 1796. He was self-educated while going to sea at the age of ten. At nineteen he commanded a small vessel and three years later he was captain of a square-rigged … Continue reading

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Robinson, Edwin Arlington

E. A. Robinson House (2003)

Amaranth (1934) Avon’s Harvest (1921) Captain Craig: A Book Of Poems (1903) Cavender’s House (1929) The Children of the Night: a Book of Poems (1897) Dionysus In Doubt : A Book Of Poems (1925) The First Seven Years (1930) Fortunatus … Continue reading

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Rockland

The Farnsworth Museum (2005)

a city in, and the county seat of, Knox County, it is the home to the Farnsworth Art Museum, the Maine Seafood Festival, a historic working waterfront, historic structures, and birthplace of notable cultural and political figures. Located on U.S. Route 1, the city is a regional service and retail center. Continue reading

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Rockport

Location Map for Rockport

The main village lies north of Rockland and boasts its own, attractive harbor near Camden. The harbor was once the home of “Andre the seal,” a local attraction and mascot of the community and summer visitors. Atteeactions include its lighthouse, opera house, and waterfront park . Continue reading

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Rockwood Strip

Location Map Rockwood Strip

Two Rockwoods Rockwood is actually two townships with virtually the same name: T1 R1 NBKP (in the east) and T2 R1 NBKP (in the west). They are adjacent to each other in a narrow strip together measuring about 11 miles … Continue reading

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Rome

Location Map for Rome

The town has substantial frontage on Long Pond (at right) and Great Pond in the Belgrade Lakes region, with many camping, boating, and other recreational opportunities. The town line is adjacent to the small village of Belgrade Lakes in the town of Belgrade. Continue reading

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Roosevelts in Maine

This famous family had close ties with Maine from “Teddy” to “FDR.” Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt, Jr. As early as 1878, Teddy Roosevelt began his long relationship with Maine and his personal guide, William Wingate “Bill” Sewall of Island Falls in … Continue reading

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Roque Bluffs

Location Map for Roque Bluffs

Located south of Machias, the community has a long coastline on its Great Cove, Englishman Bay and Little Kennebec Bay. Roque Bluffs State Park occupies about two miles of the shore. Inland from the park is the Englishman River Wildlife Management Area along the eastern shore of that river. Continue reading

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Rose, Daniel

(1771-1833) was an engineer during the War of 1812 and became the first Warden of the Maine State Prison in 1823. While President of the Maine Senate from 1822 to 1824, he briefly served as acting governor when the outgoing … Continue reading

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Roxbury

Location Map for Roxbury

Several miles north of the Rumford-Mexico area on Maine Routes 17 and 120, the community (see photos) is known for its mineral deposits, especially accessible for amateur rock hunters. It has substantial frontage on Ellis Pond (also known as Silver Lake and Roxbury Pond) and on the Swift River. A wind farm is on Record Hill. Continue reading

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Ruggles, John

John Ruggles, courtesy Maine State Museum

(1789-1874) a Senator from Maine, born in Westboro, Massachusetts on October 8, 1789, attended the common schools, graduated from Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island in 1813. He studied law was admitted to the bar and began his practice in … Continue reading

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Rumford

Location Map for Rumford

Year Population 1970 9,363 1980 8,240 1990 7,078 2000 6,472 2010 5,841 Geographic Data N. Latitude 44:31:19 W. Latitude 70:35:50 Maine House District 115 Maine Senate District 18 Congress District 2 Area sq. mi. (total) 69.9 Area sq. mi. (land) … Continue reading

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Rushworth, Robert A.

Rushworth in an Aircraft Cockpit

(1924-1993), born in Madison on October 9, 1924, grew up to be the second U.S. “winged” astronaut, that is the second to fly higher that 50 miles. A test pilot in the United State Air Force (USAF), he flew the … Continue reading

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Russell Pond

Photo: Mount Katahdin from Sandy Stream Pond (1996)

Russell Pond campground in Baxter State Park is a 7.2 mile hike from Roaring Brook campground, the location for nearest automobile access. Hikers may choose to begin on the Sandy Stream Pond trail, which, northwest of the Pond, links to … Continue reading

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Russo, Richard

a resident of Camden won the Pulitzer Prize “for distinguished fiction by an American author,” in 2002 for Empire Falls, about a declining mill town in Maine. According to an article in the Bangor Daily News, Russo reportedly said “This … Continue reading

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