Maine: An Encyclopedia
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Entries listed under "C"

Brown-headed Cowbird

Female Brown-headed Cowbird in Nobleboro (2015)

This Cowbird, 6 to eight inches beak to tail,  is a spring and summer visitor to Maine.  Once a follower of bison on the great plains, these birds now inhabit the edges of woods, roadsides, and towns across the United … Continue reading

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Calais

Location Map for Calais

in eastern, coastal Washington County and named for the French port, was briefly settled in 1604 when a French expedition arrived on St. Croix Island. Today it features late 19th century historic brick structures, modern state and federal buildings, and a visitor center. Home to Washington County Community College. See video and photos. Continue reading

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Cambridge

Location Map for Cambridge

in Somerset County, settled in 1804, incorporated in 1834 and named for Cambridge, England, the town is divided from neighboring Ripley by Main Stream, a tributary of the Sebasticook River. The village and grange hall are at the eastern end of Cambridge Pond. See photos. Continue reading

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Camden

Location Map for Camden

The village, at the foot of Mt. Battie, is at Camden Harbor on Penobscot Bay and U.S. Route 1. In 1880 the first summer cottages were built and and a flood of seasonal and semi-permanent residents began. The Opera House hosts many cultural events, including the Camden Conference and the Camden Film Festival. Edna St. Vincent Millay graduated from high school here. See video and photos. Continue reading

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Campobello Island

Campobello Island with its lighthouse, May, 1973, U.S. EPA photo National Archives # NWDNS-412-DA-7873

[cam-poo-BEL-loo] is an island in Canada, joined by a causeway to Lubec in Washington County. Acquired by  FDR’s father James Roosevelt in 1883, the house was ready for the family in 1885.  It became the summer retreat of Franklin D. … Continue reading

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Canaan

Location Map for Canaan

in Somerset County, incorporated in 1788, though settlement began in 1803 when mills were erected on Wesserunset Stream. Lake George and Sibley Pond, the source of Carrabassett Stream, are popular summer recreation and winter ice-fishing attractions. See video and photos. Continue reading

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Canals

Cumberland and Oxford Canal (2001)

An early transportation facility in Maine was the canal.  The need for public support for canals was recognized in 1820 by the state’s first  governor William King’s inaugural address. In 1834 the Board of Internal Improvements was authorized by the … Continue reading

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Canoe Trips

Canoe trips can range from several days in the Allagash Wilderness Waterway or on the Androscoggin, Kennebec, or Penobscot Rivers, to pleasant day trips often close to home. Here are few samples of accessible canoeing in Maine. (Click the film … Continue reading

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Canton

Location Map For Canton

village in Oxford County, incorporated in 1821, overlooks Lake Anasagunticook at the junction of Rts. 108 and 140. The Androscoggin River winds through the town just north of the village. The historical society, old railroad station and masonic building grace this residential, agricultural community. See video and photos. Continue reading

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Cape Elizabeth

Location Map for Cape Elizabeth

in Cumberland County, first settled by Europeans in the 1630’s, incorporated in 1765. The clipper ship Snow Squall was built here in 1851. A wealthy suburb of Portland, it has a scenic coastline; attractions include lighthouses at Two Lights State Park, Crescent Beach State Park, Fort Williams, and Portland Head Light. See photos. Continue reading

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Capital Punishment

was abolished in 1876, restored in 1883, and abolished again in 1887, although attempts to restore it have continued to the present. (Michigan was the first state to do so, in 1847.) Nevertheless, Maine has one of the lowest murder … Continue reading

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Capitol Park

Capitol Park (2004)

Capitol Park is significant as a landscape design, dating from 1827, that survives with its spatial structure intact. It is unique as an early example of a designed landscape and as a remarkable survivor within the Capitol complex. Although the … Continue reading

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Caratunk

Location Map for Caratunk

in Somerset County lies 40 miles north of Skowhegan on the Kennebec River, where both Pierce Pond Stream and Pleasant Pond Stream enter. The Appalachian Trail crosses the river aided by a canoe shuttle. Benedick Arnold marched through on his way to Quebec. See video and photos. Continue reading

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Cardinals

Where

These birds are colorful members of the finch family.  The male is well known for its bright red coat, and the female has tinges of red on her fine brownish feathers.  At 8-9 inches, they sport a distinctive tuft atop … Continue reading

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Caribou

Location Map For Caribou

in Aroostook County incorporated in 1859. European settlers awaited the conclusion of the northern boundary dispute with Canada before arriving in force in 1843. Home to the Nylander Museum of Natural History, Caribou’s depends significantly on the potato industry. See photos. Continue reading

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Carmel

Location Map for Carmel

near Interstate 95 and an easy commute to Bangor, Carmel sustained substantial population growth of 19 percent in the 1990-2000 decade, and nearly 16 percent in the ten years ending in 2010. First settled in 1798, it incorporated in1811. See photos. Continue reading

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Carr, Sister Frances

Shaker Buildings in New Gloucester (2003)

Her memoir, Growing Up Shaker, provides a glimpse into life in the Sabbathday Lake community in New Gloucester. Many orphans, or children whose parents could not afford to care for them, were brought to Shaker communities instead of to orphanages. … Continue reading

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Carrabassett Valley

Location Map for Carrabassett Valley

Home to Sugarloaf Mountain and its ski area, it has many related seasonal homes. The population has exploded in the latest census decade. A “ski academy” and a small airport are two enterprises based on the skiing economy. The Appalachian Trail passes north-south through the community along the western side of North and South Crocker Mountains. See video and photos. Continue reading

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Carrabassett Village

Sign: Welcome to Carrabassett Valley (2012)

Carrabassett village in the town of Carrabassett Valley is located along the river of the same name.  The village is east of Sugarloaf Mountain, about eight miles by road. It is served by Maine combined Routes 16/27 from Farmington (27) … Continue reading

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Carroll Plantation

Location Map For Carroll Plantation

incorporated in 1845, lies on the old stage line (Maine Route 6) from Lincoln, through Lee, Springfield to Princeton. Named for Daniel Carroll, member of the Continental Congress and signer of the Articles of Confederation and of the Constitution, it is home to an extensive maple sugar harvesting operation. See photos. Continue reading

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Carrying Place Township

South on the Bowtown Road in the Township (2007)

The township is immediately west of the Kennebec River, across from Caratunk, host to the next northerly section of the Appalachian Trail.  Access by road begins across the river from Bingham. A right turn  brings one to the Carry Pond … Continue reading

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Carrying Place Town TWP

Historic Topographic Map of T2 R3 (1956)

Appalachian Trail routes from details of a 1956 Historic Topographic Map. This township is technically known as T2 R3 BKP WKR. The latter initials mean Binghham’s Kennebec Purchase West of the Kennebec River. The township (Not to be confused with … Continue reading

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Carson, Rachel

(1907-1964) biologist, environmentalist, and nature writer was born in Springdale, Pennsylvania, near Pittsburgh, on May 27, 1907. From the mid-1940s, she and her mother spent summers near West Southport, and in 1952 Carson built a summer cottage along the Sheepscot … Continue reading

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Carter, Timothy Jarvis

(1800-1838) a U.S. Representative was born in Bethel on August 18, 1800. He attended the town schools of Bethel, studied law at Northampton, Massachusetts, was admitted to the bar in 1826, and commenced practice in Rumford. Carter moved to Paris, … Continue reading

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Carthage

Location Map For Carthage

in Franklin County incorporated in 1826 has a small but growing population. It has has many pleasant views of the western mountains and several historic buildings. The village of Berry Mills, on the Webb River, has a sawmill, as it did in the 1880s. See photos. Continue reading

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Cary Plantation

Location Map For Cary Plantation

in Aroostook County was established in 1895. The name is in honor of Shepard Cary, a prominent lumberman in the area, State Legislator and member of Congress. The small community has about 200 residents. A substantial portion of the Lt. Gordon Manuel Wildlife Management Area, shared with Hodgdon, lies in the northwestern portion.. Continue reading

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Cary, Shepard

(1805-1866) a U.S. Representative was born in New Salem, Massachusetts, July 3, 1805. He attended the common schools; moved with his parents to Houlton in 1822. Cary engaged in extensive lumber operations and also in agricultural and mercantile pursuits. A … Continue reading

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Casco

Location Map For Casco

settled by Europeans in 1771, in Cumberland County, incorporated in 1841, is on the north shore of Sebago Lake. The Songo Lock, built about 1830, linked Long Pond and Brandy Pond with Sebago Lake, allowing boat passage from Harrison to Portland. Nathaniel Hawthorne, author and Bowdoin College graduate was its most prominent resident. Continue reading

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Casco Bay

Schooner Near Halfway Rock (2001)

contains about 200 islands (depending on what one counts as an “island”) and is bounded by Cape Elizabeth in the south and Cape Small in the north. Halfway Rock is about half way between the two capes which are about … Continue reading

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Castine

Location Map For Castine

In 1629 the British authorized a trading post at what was then Pentagoet. The post was destroyed by the French in 1631 and in 1634. Two forts are among the many historic sites. Maine Maritime Academy, and its training ship are located in the town. Continue reading

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Castle Hill

Location Map For Castle Hill

in Aroostook County, incorporated in 1903. The 1,341 foot high Haystack Mountain is the only exception to the relatively flat, potato growing area. Castle Hill is on Maine Route 227, ten miles west of Presque Isle. It shares a town manager with Mapleton and Chapman. Continue reading

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Caswell

Location Map For Caswell

in Aroostook County, organized in 1879, includes a major portion of the Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge. It also hosts a tract of Maine’s Public Reserved Land just north of Mud Lake. Closing of Loring Air Force Base has sharply reduced its population. Continue reading

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Cattle Pounds

Pownal Cattle Pound (2013)

As Maine communities began to lose some of their frontier aspects in the early 19th century and assumed a more settled appearance, rudimentary civic improvements were initiated. Among these improvements in the largely agricultural world of rural Maine was the … Continue reading

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Cemeteries

As in many states with early European settlements, Maine has a wide variety of cemeteries. They differ in size, design, ownership, religious association, documentation, and physical condition. The Encyclopedia does not intend to document all cemeteries, but to note the … Continue reading

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Census Quick Facts Maine 2010

Population definition and source info

For county Quick Facts, use the menu bar above, clicking on “Government,” then “Counties.” See also population. People QuickFacts Maine USA Population, 2010 1,328,361 308,745,538 Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010 4.2% 9.7% Population, 2000 1,274,923 281,421,906 Persons under 5 … Continue reading

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Centerville

Location Map For Centerville

now an unorganized township, was a town in Aroostook County. In 1886 it had a rail freight connection, now a recreational trail, with Machias. The economy was based on two shingle mills, potatoes and hay. 1870 population stood at 145; by 1880 it had plunged to 32, from which level it never recovered. The town deorganized in 2004. Continue reading

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Chain of Ponds

is the name for Township T2 R6 WBKP, which contains the Chain Lakes, a waterway that provided Benedict Arnold’s expedition with the final passage to Canada on October 25th and 26th in 1775. The North Branch of the Dead River … Continue reading

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Chamberlain, Frances

Frances C. A. Chamberlain, courtesy Pejepscot Historical Society, Brunswick

Frances (Fanny) Caroline Adams Chamberlain (1825-1905) was a musician and the wife of Civil War General Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain. She was adopted as a small child by her father’s nephew, Reverend George Adams and his wife. He was minister of … Continue reading

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Chamberlain, Joshua L.

Joshua L. Chamberlain (courtesy Maine State Museum)

(1828-1914) was born September 8, 1828, in Brewer the eldest of five children. He worked on his father’s farm and, like many other promising young men, taught school for a time. Entering Bowdoin College in Brunswick in 1848, Chamberlain studied … Continue reading

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Chamberlain, Letter to Lincoln

Letter to President Lincoln from Secretary of War Stanton regarding Joshua L. ChamberlainLetter to President Lincoln from Secretary of War Stanton to be appointedBrigadier General

Letter to President Lincoln from Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton recommeding that Joshua L. Chamberlain be appointed Brigadier General “for gallant and meritorious conduct in leading his Brigade against the enemy at Peterburg, Virginia where he was dangerously wounded … Continue reading

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Champlain, Samuel De

(1570?-1635) led an expedition to the Gulf of Maine and along the Maine coast in 1604 seeking a better location for the French colony at St. Croix. He named Mount Desert Island “the island of desert-like mountains,” writing that the … Continue reading

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Chandler, John

John Chandler, Senate President courtesy Maine State Archives

(1762-1841) was born in Epping, New Hampshire, brother of Thomas Chandler and uncle of Zachariah Chandler, both penniless and illiterate. A U.S. Representative from Massachusetts and a U. S. Senator from Maine, he served in Congress in the following years: … Continue reading

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Chapman

Location Map For Chapman

a town in Aroostook County, incorporated in 1915 from Chapman Plantation, was settled in the late 1860s. It cooperates with Castle Hill and Mapleton with a common town manager and comprehensive plan. The Haystack Historical Society serves this rural area. Continue reading

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Charleston

Location Map For Charleston

in Penobscot County, incorporated in 1811 under the name of New Charleston. Higgins Classical Institute, for “the promotion of christian education,” was established in 1891. Once the site of a U.S. Air Force radar and communications base, it now hosts a correctional center using the former base facilities. See photos. Continue reading

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Charlotte

Location Map For Charlotte

in Washington County, incorporated in 1825. Its Pennamaquan Wildlife Management Area, a 1,500-plus acre site, offers opportunities for boating, canoeing, hunting, fishing, and viewing of eagles, deer and waterfowl. The first settlement was established about 1807-1810. Continue reading

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Chase, Mary Ellen

Mary Ellen Chase, professor English, May, 1933

(1887-1993) produced a great many books in her career that secured her place in academic circles. Her books about her recollections of Maine provide readers with vivid images of life on the rural coast in the years before electricity and … Continue reading

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Chebeague Island

Location Map of Chebeague Island

[shuh-BEEG-iland] is a town in Cumberland County, incorporated on July 1, 2007 after separating from the mainland town of Cumberland. In doing so, it joined its neighbor Long Island as another new town in Casco Bay. The 2000 census recorded … Continue reading

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Cheerleading

Cheerleader

Consecutive Championships School No. Years Monmouth 5 1998-2002 C. Aroostook 5 2008-2012 Year Class A Class B Class C Class D 1987 Bonny Eagle Bucksport Central Aroostook Deer-Isle 1988 Bonny Eagle Bucksport Central Aroostook Deer-Isle 1989 Windham Bucksport Central Aroostook … Continue reading

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Chelsea

Location Map For Chelsea

in Kennebec County, named for a town in Massachusetts, incorporated in 1851. Togus Medical Center, known generally as “Togus” is here. Originally it was the National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers from the Civil War. The grange, school and town hall are clustered near each other. See photos. Continue reading

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Cherryfield

Location Map For Cherryfield

in Washington County, incorporated 1816, straddles the Narraguagus River. See photos. Once a favorite spot for catching the now endangered Atlantic Salmon, it is a blueberry growing and processing center. A shipbuilding community, it produced the bark Belgrade, which rounded Cape Horn with 56 local men during the California gold rush. Continue reading

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Chester

Location Map For Chester

a town in Penobscot County, settled 1823, incorporated 1834, its small population grew by almost 19 percent in the decade ending in 2000, and maintained its growth through 2010. See photos. Continue reading

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Chesterville

Location Map For Chesterville

in Franklin County, incorporated 1802, contains the Chesterville Wildlife Management Area featuring canoeing and hunting. The village of Farmington Falls is partly in Farmington and partly in Chesterville. See photos. Continue reading

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Chesuncook

Chesuncook Village (1972)

[chu-SUN-cook] is an unorganized township (T5 R13 WELS) in Piscataquis County. The name means “at the place of the principal outlet,” according to McCauley. Chesuncook Lake extends south to T3 R12 WELS. Ripogenus Dam, constructed 1916-1920 “at the place of … Continue reading

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Chickadees

Black-capped Chicadee (2007)

The Black-capped Chickadee is the State of Maine’s official bird.  Actually, the law only refers to the “chickadee,” but there are other species.  This 5 inch bird inhabits the northern half of the United States and southern Canada. In addition … Continue reading

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China

Location Map For China

in Kennebec County near Augusta, incorporated 1818, is the birthplace of a member of Congress and a Quaker educator-author. China Lake, around which Quakers and Baptists settled in the early 19th century, dominates the community and its history as a recreational center. See photos. Continue reading

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Chute, Carolyn

(1947?- ) (pronounced CHOOT) is a Maine author best known for her Beans of Egypt, Maine which conveys the hard life of the state’s rural poverty.  She was born Carolyn Penny in Portland. She grew up in the rural Pond … Continue reading

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Cilley, Jonathan

Jonathan Cilley, courtesy Maine State Museum

(1802-1838), nephew of Bradbury Cilley (U.S. Representative from New Hampshire 1813-1817) and brother of Joseph Cilley U.S. Senator from New Hampshire), was a U.S. Representative who was born in Nottingham, Rockingham County, New Hampshire on July 2, 1802. He attended … Continue reading

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Civil War

Camp scene, 2nd Maine Infantry

had a major impact on Maine, whose armed forces played a leading role in Maine’s participation in the Civil War. The Adjutant General’s Office in Maine State government had extensive records of Maine’s participation in the Civil War. Now in … Continue reading

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Civilian Conservation Corps

"In apple trees" near Acton, 1934

was established by Congress on April 5, 1933 as recommended by President Franklin B. Roosevelt. On April 27th Maine received its first quota for 1,800 men, mostly youths between 18 and 24. The quota was divided proportionately among the counties … Continue reading

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Clapp, Asa

Asa William Henrt Clapp (1805-1891) a U.S. Representative was born in Portland on March 6, 1805, and was graduated from the Norwich (Vermont) Military Academy in 1823. He engaged as a merchant in foreign and domestic commerce at Portland. In … Continue reading

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Clark, Franklin

(1801-1874) a U.S. Representative was born in Wiscasset on August 2, 1801. He attended the common schools, and engaged in the lumber and shipping business in Wiscasset. Clark was a member of the Maine State Senate in 1847 and was … Continue reading

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Clarke, Rebecca

Rebecca Sophia Clarke (February 22, 1833-August 10, 1906), daughter of Asa Clarke, was born in Norridgewock.  After her education at the Female Academy in Norridgewock, she moved to Evansville, Illinois, living at the home of a married sister while she … Continue reading

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Clauson, Clinton A.

Clinton A. Clauson (courtesy of Maine State Museum)

was born in Iowa on March 24, 1898. After attending local schools and serving in the U.S. Army during World War I, he graduated from the Palmer School of Chiropractic and soon moved his practice to Waterville, where he practiced … Continue reading

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Cleaves, Henry B.

Henry B. Cleaves (courtesy Maine State Museum)

(1840-1912) born in Bridgton on February 6, 1840, was Maine governor from 1893 to 1897. Educated in local schools and at Bridgeton Academy, During the Civil War he enlisted in Company B of the 23rd Maine Volunteers and by War’s … Continue reading

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Clifford, Nathan

Nathan Clifford, Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (second from left)

(1803-1881) was a U.S. Representative who was born in Rumney, New Hampshire on August 18, 1803. He attended the public schools of Rumney, the Haverhill (New Hampshire) Academy, and New Hampton Literary Institute. He taught school and gave vocal lessons, … Continue reading

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Clifton

Location Map For Clifton

in Penobscot County, incorporated 1848, settled in 1815, and recently growing in population, Clifton provides recreational opportunities, at the southeast end of Chemo Pond and Peaked Mountain, for the greater Bangor area. Fitts Pond in the southwest corner provides water access for Boy Scout Camp Roosevelt. See photos. Continue reading

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Climate

Maine Climate Divisions from Maine

Local Climate Changes Earth’s atmosphere is experiencing unprecedented changes that are modifying global climate. Discussions continue around the world, the nation, and in Maine on how to reduce and eventually eliminate emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), other greenhouse gases, and … Continue reading

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Climate, Ice Out Dates

Ice-out on Sebago Lake, Spring 1985

Historical Changes in Lake Ice-Out Dates as Indicators of Climate Change in New England, 1850-2000 U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet FS 2005-3002 January 2005. Changes in water resources over time may affect public and private … Continue reading

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Climate, Ice Out on Moosehead Lake

Ice Out Moosehead 2014

Since the 1870’s, the date for “ice out” on Moosehead Lake has been occurring earlier in the year on average. Similar trends have been documented on other Maine lakes, including Richardson Lake. The warming climate has advanced the typical date … Continue reading

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Clinton

Location Map For Clinton

is a town in Kennebec County, incorporated under the name Maine in 1848. The following year, the confusing address “Maine, Maine” was changed. Across the Kennebec River from Hinckley lies the Pishon Ferry area, now served by a modern bridge. A small white church overlooks the river. See photos. Continue reading

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Clipper Ships

"Red Jacket": In the ice off Cape Horn, on Passage from Australia, to Liverpool, August 1854

were built in Maine in the 1850’s, with 54 having been constructed from 1851 to 1854.  Depending on how you define “Clipper,” William Hutchinson Rowe counts ninety from 1850 to 1856.  Since some very fast ships were known as “clippers,” … Continue reading

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Coastal Studies Center

The Farmhouse and Barn (2010)

The Coastal Studies Center of Bowdoin College is located on Orrs Island in Harpswell. In 1981 Irma and William Thalheimer gave the 118 acre property, including the farmhouse and barn, to Bowdoin “to be protected in its natural environment and … Continue reading

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Coatsworth, Elizabeth

Chimney Farm Conservation Easement Notice (2008)

Selected works . . . Cricket and the Emperor’s Son (1962) The Giant Golden Book of Dogs, Cats, and Horses: 61 stories and poems. (1957) The House of the Swan (1959) Knock at the Door (1931) The Trunk (1941) The … Continue reading

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Cobb, William T.

William T. Cobb (courtesy Maine State Museum)

(1857-1937) born in Rockland on July 23, 1857, was Maine governor from 1905 to 1909. Educated in local schools, he graduated from Bowdoin College in 1877 and did graduate work at the University of Leipzig and the University of Berlin. … Continue reading

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Coburn, Abner

Abner Coburn (courtesy Maine State Museum)

(1803-1885) governor of Maine 1863-1864, was born in that part of Canaan now Skowhegan on March 22, 1803. He was the great-grandson of Joseph Weston, one of the town’s first settlers. His brother, Stephen Coburn, was a member of Congress. … Continue reading

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Coburn, Stephen

(1817-1882) a U.S. Representative was born in Bloomfield (now Skowhegan on November 11, 1817. A brother of Abner Coburn, he attended Waterville and China Academies, was graduated from Waterville (now Colby) College in 1839. Coburn taught a plantation school in … Continue reading

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Cod Landings

Cod Landings 1950-2011

The amount and value of cod landngs by commercial fishermen spiked in 1991 to over 21 million pounds and over $16 million in total value.  Since then landings have dropped as sharply as they had increased in 1989 and 1990. … Continue reading

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Codyville

Location Map For Codyville

is a plantation in eastern Washington County organized in 1871. Recent population losses may threaten its ability to survive. Maine Route 6 links it to Vanceboro on the Canadian Border. This heavily forested area is subject to the “Eastern Interior Region Management Plan” of the Maine Department of Conservation. See photos. Continue reading

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Coffin, Frank Morey

(1919-2009) a U.S. Representative was born in Lewiston on July 11, 1919. Educated in Lewiston public schools; he graduated from Bates College in 1940, from Harvard Business School in 1943, and from Harvard Law School in 1947. Coffin served in … Continue reading

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Coffin, Robert

Works by R. P. T. Coffin Christchurch (1924) Book Of Crowns And Cottages (1925) Dew And Bronze (1927) A Book Of Seventeenth-Century Prose (1929) An Attic Room (1929)Golden Falcon (1929) Laud, Storm Center Of Stuart England (1930) The Dukes Of … Continue reading

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Cohen, William

William S. Cohen (1997)

William Sebastian “Bill” Cohen was a Republican U.S. Representative and a U.S. Senator from Maine, 1979-1997. Born in Bangor, Penobscot County August 28, 1940; he attended the public schools; graduated, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine in 1962 and graduated, Boston University … Continue reading

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Colby College

Miller Library (2001)

is a liberal arts institution, known in its early days as Waterville College, located in Waterville on its 714-acre campus. Founded in 1813, Colby is one of the nation’s oldest independent colleges. A residential four-year college, more than two thirds … Continue reading

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Cole, John N.

Selected Works From the Ground Up (1976) Striper: The Story of Fish and Man (1978/1989) Amaranth, from the Past for the Future (1979) Cityside Countryside: A Journey to Two Places (1980): Sun Reflections: Images for the New Solar Age (1981) … Continue reading

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Colleges

Colby College (2001)

Maine has about thirty universities, colleges, community colleges, two-year associate degree granting institutions, and the separate institutions of the University of Maine System. Each has its own identity, mission, and appeal to students from different areas of the state, with … Continue reading

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Collins, Susan M.

(1952- ) Susan Margaret Collins, a U.S. Senator from Maine, was born in Caribou December 7, 1952, and graduated from St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York in 1975.  A native of Aroostook County , her family has run a lumber … Continue reading

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Columbia

Location Map For Columbia

in Washington County, incorporated 1796, is home to the “Great Heath” and the Pleasant River as it winds itself toward Columbia Falls. Natural resources drove the economy: logging, saw mills, fishing, boat building, bean farming and blueberries. See map and photos. U.S. Route 1 cuts the southeast corner of this small but growing community, bucking the trend of population loss in much of Washington County. Continue reading

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Columbia Falls

Location Map For Columbia Falls

in Washington County, incorporated in 1863 from a portion sister community, Columbia. The blueberry industry has sustained the local economy, keeping the population stable and growing, however modestly. This former lumbering and shipbuilding community boasts several notable homes from the bygone era. The Ruggles House built for lumberman and judge Thomas Ruggles, is one. See photos. Continue reading

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Concord

Location Map for Concord Township

is now an unorganized township in Somerset County after having been a town for over 100 years. Incorporated on January 25, 1821 from Plantation Number One, R1, BKP., WKR., it surrendered its organized status on July 6, 1935, and thus … Continue reading

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Congressional Medal of Honor After the Civil War

This inventory of Medal recipients for Maine is a duplicate of that in a published congressional compilation. Likewise, some minor misspelling and other errors are duplicated from the official government volume. These likely were the result of the original transcriptions.  … Continue reading

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Congressional Medal of Honor Civil War

This inventory of Medal recipients for Maine is a duplicate of that in a published congressional compilation. Likewise, some minor misspelling and other errors are duplicated from the official government volume. These likely were the result of the original transcriptions. … Continue reading

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Connor

Location Map for Connor

an unorganized township in Aroostook County, was once a town. The impact of the Great Depression and World War II forced its deorganization in 1945. A section of the Aroostook National Wildlife Refuge is in the township. See photo. Continue reading

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Connor, Selden

Selden Connor, governor

was a Civil War general, formerly a Colonel in the 19th Maine Volunteers, and governor from 1876 through 1879. He was born in Fairfield on January 25, 1839, attended local schools, and graduated from Tufts College in 1859. In 1861, … Continue reading

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Constitution, Maine

Title page from the Maine Constitution, Maine State Archives photo

Article I. Declaration of Rights. Article II. Electors. Article III. Distribution of Powers. Article IV. Part First. House of Representatives. Part Second. Senate. Part Third. Legislative Power. Article V. Part First. Executive Power. Part Second. Secretary. Part Third. Treasurer. Article … Continue reading

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Constitutional Amendments List

The first amendment to the Maine Constitution was initiated fourteen years after statehood. The next few decades produced amendments adjusting the structure and rules of the new state. As the 200th anniversary approached in the year 2020, 172 amendments had … Continue reading

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Constitutional Offices

Secretaries of State 820-21 Ashur Ware, Portland 1822-28 Amos Nichols, Augusta 1829-30 Edward Russell, N. Yarmouth 1831-34 Roscoe G. Greene, Portland 1835-37 Asaph R. Nichols, Augusta 1838 Samuel P. Benson, Winthrop 1839 Asaph R. Nichols, Augusta 1840 Philip C. Johnson, … Continue reading

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Cony, Samuel

Samuel Cony (courtesy Maine State Museum)

(1811-1870), Governor of Maine from 1864 to 1867, was born in Augusta on February 27, 1811 in a politically active family with a military tradition. His father, General Samuel Cony, was the first Adjutant-General of Maine, holding that office for … Continue reading

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Cooper

Location Map for Cooper

in Washington County, incorporated in1822. See photos. Blueberries are one of three fruits native to this area, the others are cranberries and grapes. Only blueberries are a commercial crop. Their fields, currently about 1100 acres, give Cooper its fine open areas and scenic views. Forest products has been another staple of the economy. Continue reading

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Cooper’s Hawk

Coopers Hawk near bird feeders in Harpswell, Maine (2014)

This raptor has traditionally summered in Maine but moved south for the winter.  However, climate change may have altered that pattern.  A bit smaller than an osprey, it is still an imposing sight perched near a house. Its habitat in … Continue reading

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Coplin Plantation

Location Map for Coplin Plantation

a plantation in Franklin County, organized in 1893, is just south of Flagstaff Lake on Maine Route 16. See photo. The South Branch of the Dead River flows through on its way to the lake. Two sections of Maine’s Public Reserved Lands, in the Flagstaff Region, lie within the plantation. Continue reading

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Corinna

Location Map for Corinna

in Penobscot County, incorporated 1818. See photos. From the mid-1930s to 1996 the Eastland Woolen Mill provided employment. It discharged contaminated water into the East Branch of the Sebasticook River and became a Superfund Site. Corinna is the birthplace of Gilbert Patten (1866) who wrote the Frank Merriwell series of boys books under the name Bert L. Standish. Continue reading

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Corinth

Location Map for Corinth

in Penobscot County, incorporated in 1811. In 1886 it had three saw-mills, three shingle, one stave, two planing and two grist mills, one cheese-factory, one carriage and sleigh factory. Recently, Corinth Wood Pellets mill has taken advantage of this new form of heating fuel. Its population has had steady growth 1970-2010. Continue reading

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Cormier, Lucia

(1909-1993) was a trail blazing Maine woman and early political leader. First, Cormier was a woman in politics when that itself was an anomaly, serving six terms in the Maine House of Representatives between 1946 and 1960. She did not … Continue reading

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Cornish

Location Map for Cornish

in York County, incorporated 1794, probably named for settlers from Cornwall, England. The main street features tourist attractions such as lodging, eating, and antiques. Cornish village is located where the Ossipee River feeds into the Saco River. Little River enters the Ossipee just before its link to the Saco. See photos. Continue reading

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Cornville

Location Map for Cornville

in Somerset County, incorporated 1798, this growing community in a rural setting is just north of Skowhegan on Route 150. Several mills and a tannery were established on the Wesserunset River in the 19th century. See photos. Continue reading

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Counties

Maine has sixteen counties, as well as hundreds of local governments. The earliest established was York, in 1652; the latest, Knox in 1860. The structure and functions of county government are similar throughout the state. For a brief sketch of … Continue reading

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Courts, Judicial Department

Pownalborough Courthouse, Dresden (2000)

The 1761 Pownalborough Courthouse was the first built in Maine and the only one built prior to the Revolution. It was part of the Massachusetts court system, from which Maine separated in 1820. For details of early court history in … Continue reading

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Craig, Minnie

Minnie D. Davenport was born in Phillips on November 4, 1883, the daughter of Marshall and Aura (Prescott) Davenport. Following high school graduation in Phillips, Minnie attended Farmington State Normal School and the New England Conservatory of Music in Boston. … Continue reading

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Cranberry Isles

Location Map for Cranberry Isles

in Hancock County, incorporated 1830, requires ferries or water taxis to access. The 200 acre cranberry marsh on Great Cranberry Island influenced Governor Bernard in 1762 to name the town as it is. Little Cranberry hosts the Islesford Historical Museum; The Baker Island and Bear Island light stations provide navigation assistance near Acadia National Park. See map. Continue reading

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Crawford

Location Map for Crawford

in Washington County, incorporated 1828, is located on Maine Route 9, following the tracks of the old Airline Stage Route. Crawford Lake occupies the center of the town, an attraction for fishing and recreation. See photos. Continue reading

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Crime

Violent Crime by Month 1994-2011

Major crime in Maine has decreased from 30.8 offenses per 1,000 population in 1998 to 27.5 in 2011. However, since 2004 the rate has increased slightly. See how Maine ranks among states on crime rates. The Maine Department of Public … Continue reading

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Crime, Murder

Murderer-Victim Relationship 1995-2004

Rate/100000 Year Murders Maine U.S. 1980 32 2.8 10.2 1981 36 3.2 9.8 1982 24 2.1 9.1 1983 24 2.1 8.3 1984 20 1.7 7.9 1985 28 2.4 7.9 1986 22 1.9 8.6 1987 30 2.5 8.3 1988 37 3.1 … Continue reading

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Crime, Rape

Rape Reported and Arrests 1991-2013

Reported rape increased from an average of 294 in 1991-1995 to 376 in 2009-2013. Looking at trends, from 1980 to 2010 (see Index Crimes) the number of reported rapes varied widely through an annual range of 145 to nearly 400. … Continue reading

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Crimes, Index

Murders 1980-2013

As the graphs below indicate, both violent and non-violent crime have been decreasing in frequency since 1980, with a slight increase since 2005. The number of crimes in 2013, compared to the 1980 figures, declined 22% for violent offenses and … Continue reading

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Crosby, Cornelia

Cornelia "Fly Rod" Crosby (Maine State Museum)

Cornelia “Fly Rod” Crosby (1854-1946) was born in Phillips on November 10, 1854. As a recent account of her life is subtitled, she was “The Woman Who Marketed Maine.” After her father died and then her brother, she lived with … Continue reading

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Crosby, William G.

William G. Crosby (courtesy Maine State Museum)

(1805-1881) was born in Belfast on September 10, 1805. He was educated at Belfast Academy and graduated from Bowdoin College just before his eighteenth birthday. He was the first person born in Belfast to receive a college education. His contemporaries … Continue reading

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Cross Country, Boys

Cross Country is the sport of long-distance running over paths or open country.  High school courses are usually several miles in length. Runners are sometimes call “harriers,” after a hound that was used to chase hares in Britain. Class D … Continue reading

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Cross Country, Girls

Cross Country is the sport of long-distance running over paths or open country. High school courses are usually several miles in length. Runners are sometimes call “harriers,” after a hound that was used to chase hares in Britain. Class D … Continue reading

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Cross, Burton M.

Burton M. Cross (courtesy Maine State Museum)

(1902-  ) was born in Gardiner, on November 15, 1902, graduated from Cony High School in 1920 and became a florist in Augusta in 1926. In 1933 he won a seat on the Augusta Common Council and four years later … Continue reading

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Crow, American

American Crow (2013)

The American crow is related to crows on other continents, such as Europe, Africa and Asia. Similar to the common raven, also black, it is smaller, up to 18 inches compared to up to 27 inches for the raven. In … Continue reading

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Crystal

Location Map for Crystal

in Aroostook County, organized as a plantation 1878 and incorporated 1901. Its Thousand Acre Bog is considered one of Maine’s “Focus Areas of Statewide Ecological Significance.” See map. A pedestrian trail from Patten to Sherman winds through the bog. Continue reading

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Cultural Resources

Pejepscot Historical Society on Park Row in Brunswick (2002)

Cultural resources in Maine range from the many community institutions to larger institutions with statewide or broader significance. This page contains a brief summary. Acton Shapleigh HS Albany Township History Allagash HS Alexander – Crawford HS Andover HS Androscoggin HS … Continue reading

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Cumberland

Location Map for Cumberland

in Cumberland County, incorporated 1822, includes two islands in Casco Bay: Sturdivant and Basket. Basket Island, is a nature preserve of .9 acres of mixed forest and shell and gravel beaches. The town, a suburb of Portland, grew by almost 23 percent between 1990 and 2000, and continues its population growth. See photos. Continue reading

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Cumberland County

Map of Maine Counties and Baxter Park

the most populous of Maine’s counties, contains approximately 20% of the state’s population with less than 3% of the state’s land area.  Four of the ten largest communities by population are in Cumberland County. See an 1857 map of the … Continue reading

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Cumberland County Nature Preserves

Along a Trail at the Coastal Studies Center (2005)

Basket Island, Cumberland. 9 acres of mixed forest and shell and gravel beaches. Osprey nest on nearby ledges. Watch out for abundant poison ivy.  Popular picnic spot. Managed by The Nature Conservancy. Bay Bridge Landing, Brunswick. A six-acre wetland park … Continue reading

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Cundys Harbor

Cundys Harbor Village (2014)

Cundys Harbor is a village within the town of Harpswell, in the area known as East Harpswell. It is located in the southeastern portion of this sprawling coastal town, on Sebascodegan Island. In 1985 the Maine Historic Preservation Commission described … Continue reading

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Curtis Island

Curtis Light Station (undated)

[KUR-tis ISLAND], known for many years as Negro Island, is located in Camden Harbor in Knox County. Established in 1835, a light at the station was first lit in 1896 and was automated in 1972. White with a black “lantern” … Continue reading

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Curtis, Kenneth M.

Governor Ken Curtis, wife Polly, and daughter Angel (from a Christmas card sent to friends while governor.)

(1931- ) was governor of Maine from 1967 to 1975, and was Chair of the Democratic National Committee in 1977. William Curtis moved to the to the Town of Leeds in 1800 in what is now Curtis Corner, once a … Continue reading

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Curtis, Oakley C.

Oakley C. Curtis (courtesy Maine State Museum)

(1865-1924) of Portland was born March 29, 1865 and attended local public schools. He began work as a clerk for the Grand Trunk Railroad, then worked for a wholesale coal dealership, becoming its manager then president. Curtis later focused on … Continue reading

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Cushing

Location Map for Cushing

in Knox County, incorporated in 1789, is just south of Thomaston and lies on the western shore of the St. George River. It is famous as the home of Anna “Christina” Olson, Andrew Wyeth’s subject in his now classic “Christina’s World.” The weather beaten house overlooks the Georges River and the family cemetery. Continue reading

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Cutler

Location Map for Cutler

in Washington County, incorporated 1826, is east of East Machias and boasts a large, protected harbor known as Little Machias Bay. A U.S. Navy communication base is on the Bay. Cutler Coast Public Preserved Land, in Cutler and Whiting, has almost five miles of dramatic cliff-bound ocean shore. Continue reading

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Cutler, Nathaniel

Governor Nathan Cutler (courtesy Maine State Archives)

(1775-1861) was a farmer’s son who decided to leave the land against his father’s wishes. Born in Lexington, Massachusetts on May 29, 1775, he attended Leicester Academy, then graduated from Dartmouth in 1798. After teaching briefly in Middlebury, Vermont while … Continue reading

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Cyr Plantation

Location Map for Cyr Plantation

a plantation in Aroostook County, settled in 1824, was formally organized in 1870. Just south of Van Buren on U.S. Route 1, it is a community of open spaces and few people. Agriculture is still a significant staple of its economy. Continue reading

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Cyr, Marguerite

Marguerite-Blanch Thibodeau Cyr (1738-1810), a healer, midwife, and pioneer, was part of the migration from the French settlements of Acadia to Madawaska Territory on the south side of the St. John River Valley in the State of Maine. She was … Continue reading

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Gray Catbird

Gray Catbird near a Bird Feeder (2013)

Yes, the Gray Catbird sounds like a cat in “normal” mode.  But, being a relative of mockingbirds, it often imitates others or combines sounds of several species to create its own music. The one pictured here is typical in its … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 01 Declaration of Rights

Article I. Declaration of Rights. Section 1. Natural rights. All people are born equally free and independent, and have certain natural, inherent and unalienable rights, among which are those of enjoying and defending life and liberty, acquiring, possessing and protecting … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 02 Electors

Article II. Electors. Section 1. Qualifications of electors; written ballot; military servicemen; students. Every citizen of the United States of the age of 18 years and upwards, excepting persons under guardianship for reasons of mental illness, having his or her … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 03 Distribution of Powers

Article III. Distribution of Powers. Section 1. Powers distributed. The powers of this government shall be divided into 3 distinct departments, the legislative, executive and judicial. Section 2. To be kept separate. No person or persons, belonging to one of … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 04 Part 1

Article IV. — Part First. House of Representatives. Section 1. Legislative department; style of acts. The legislative power shall be vested in 2 distinct branches, a House of Representatives, and a Senate, each to have a negative on the other, … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 04 Part 2

Article IV. — Part Second. Senate. Section 1. Number of Senators. The Senate shall consist of an odd number of Senators, not less than 31 nor more than 35, elected at the same time and for the same term as … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 04 Part 3

Article IV. — Part Third. Legislative Power. Section 1. To meet annually; power of Legislature to convene itself at other times; extent of legislative power. The Legislature shall convene on the first Wednesday of December following the general election in … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 05 Part 1

Article V. — Part First. Executive Power. Section 1. Governor. The supreme executive power of this State shall be vested in a Governor. Section 2. Term of office; reelection eligibility. The Governor shall be elected by the qualified electors, and … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 05 Part 2

Article V. — Part Second. Secretary. Section 1. Election. The Secretary of State shall be chosen biennially at the first session of the Legislature, by joint ballot of the Senators and Representatives in convention. Section 1-A. Succession to the office … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 06 Judicial Power

Article VI. Judicial Power. Section 1. Courts. The judicial power of this State shall be vested in a Supreme Judicial Court, and such other courts as the Legislature shall from time to time establish. Section 2. Compensation. The Justices of … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 07 Military

Article VII. Military. Section 1. Officers, how appointed. All commissioned officers of the militia shall be appointed and commissioned by the Governor, from such persons as are qualified by law to hold such offices. Section 2. Qualifications and selection. The … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 08 Part 1

Article VIII. — Part First. Education. Section 1. Legislature shall require towns to support public schools; duty of Legislature. A general diffusion of the advantages of education being essential to the preservation of the rights and liberties of the people; … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 08 Part 2

Article VIII. — Part Second. Municipal Home Rule. Section 1. Power of municipalities to amend their charters. The inhabitants of any municipality shall have the power to alter and amend their charters on all matters, not prohibited by Constitution or … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 09

Article IX. General Provisions. Section 1. Oaths and subscriptions. Every person elected or appointed to either of the places or offices provided in this Constitution, and every person elected, appointed, or commissioned to any judicial, executive, military or other office … Continue reading

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Maine Constitution Art. 10

Article X. Additional Provisions. Section 1. (See Section 7 and Note.) Section 2. (See Section 7 and Note.) Section 3. Laws now in force continue until repealed. All laws now in force in this State, and not repugnant to this … Continue reading

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Sandhill Cranes

Sandhill Crane in Sherman (2015)

Sandhill Cranes are very large, tall birds with a long neck reaching four feet tall.  They have long legs and broad wings. The cranes are mostly found in the Midwest but since the year 2000 they have been seen in … Continue reading

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State Capitol Memorials

Memorials to people, groups, and events are located near the State House in Augusta. One of the more striking images is the one dedicated to those who served in the Vietnam War. Located in Capitol Park, across from the State … Continue reading

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