|Maine House||Dists 58-61|
|Maine Senate||District 21|
|Area sq. mi.||(total) 35.2|
|Area sq. mi.||(land) 34.1|
Total=land+water; Land=land only
[LUU-iss-tun] is a city in Androscoggin County, settled in 1770 and incorporated as a town on February 18, 1795 from Lewiston Plantation. After annexing land from Greene and Webster (now Sabattus) in 1852, it became a city on November 22,1862.
Lewiston Falls, on the Androscoggin River between downtown Lewiston and neighboring Auburn, its “twin” city, was a fishing source for Native Americans. It was known by them as Amitgonpontook, or the falls where you smoke meat or fish, a meaning similar to Androscoggin.
In 1874, the city was the site of the formation of the Maine State Grange.
Recently, a park has been developed at the site of the falls, known as Great Falls, and one of the old mills, now a housing complex, that once thrived on its power.
The falls provided power for the many mills and factories that dominated the local economy during the 19th and early 20th centuries. A canal system supported the factories. As recently as 1978 Jim Brunelle could state “Lewiston is the largest textile manufacturing center in Maine.” In the early 21st century that distinction has all but disappeared.
The Bates Manufacturing mill, built on the Lowell (Massachusetts) model, is now defunct. It began production in 1852 and by 1857 had, according to the Lewiston Falls Journal, surpassed the capacity of mills in Lawrence and Lowell Massachusetts. Having stockpiled cotton prior to the Civil War, Bates excelled during the war, operating five of the eight cotton mills in Lewiston and employing over 5,000 men and women.
The great demand for manufacturing labor in the 19th century drew large numbers of French speaking people from Canada and northern Maine. Their descendents and the locally adapted culture still dominate the City’s character. While the population of Maine declined in the 1860’s, that of Lewiston grew by 83 percent then added 40% in the 1870.
During the late 19th century labor unions emerged in response to difficult working conditions and the efforts of the Knights of Labor to enact labor reform laws in Maine. The following list of Lewiston unions in 1903 provides an insight into the economy of the time: Bricklayers, Masons and Plasterers; Brotherhood of Painters, Decorators and Paper Hangers; Carpenters and Joiners; Cigarmakers; Cotton Mule Spinners [textile workers]; Granite Cutters; Iron Moulders; Masons Tenders; Retail Clerks International; and Typographical. In addition Auburn’s Boot and Shoemakers’ Union probably served Lewiston workers.
From 1970 to 2000 the city’s population was again in decline. In 2010 it grew by about 1,000, reversing the trend. This time another ethnic group, Somali refugees from their homeland, were instrumental in the recent growth.
As did many working class immigrant communities, the Franco-Americans found support in the Democratic Party and made the city a major political stronghold for the Democrats. Lewiston contributed two 19th century governors, Nelson Dingley, Jr. (1874-1876) and Alonzo Garcelon (1879).
The first governor of the 20th century from the city was Louis L. Brann, elected in the depths of the Depression (1933-1937), even as Franklin D. Roosevelt lost in Maine during his winning national landslide election as president. James B. Longley, Sr., a Lewiston insurance executive, became the state’s first modern “independent” governor, serving from 1975 through 1979.
Former Red Sox manager Bill Carrigan was born in the city in 1883. U.S. Senator William P. Frye was born here. It is the birthplace of U.S. Representatives Frank M. Coffin; Ebenezer Herrick, whose son, Anson Herrick, editor and publisher, was also born here; James B. Longley, Jr., whose father was born here; Daniel J. McGillicuddy, and Wallace White, Jr.
Alice Parker of Lewiston was the first woman admitted to the Androscoggin County Bar in 1932. She was also the first woman to argue a case, which she won, before the Maine Supreme Count. She specialized in probate law. [“Cross Examination.” Lewiston Journal. September 15, 1952. p. 12]
Bates College and a Lewiston-Auburn division of the University of Maine are located in the city. Even with declines in population, recently arrested, it remains Maine’s second largest city.
Lewiston is home to Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, one of New England’s largest. Founded by the Stanton Bird Club, access is from the Highland Springs Road, off Sabattus Street. It also hosts Bates College and Central Maine Medical College of Nursing and Health Professions.
Form of Government: Council-Mayor-Administrator.
Album Historique Paroisse Canadienne-Française de Lewiston (Maine). Lewiston, Me. Les Pères Dominicains. 1899 (Lewiston, Me. Le Messager).
Brunelle, Jim. Maine Almanac.
Early history of City of Lewiston, Maine 1770 to 1878. Photocopy at Maine State Library of Clarence D. Farrar’s scrapbook of collected newspaper clippings from Lewiston area newspapers.
Elder, J. G. History of Lewiston. Boston, A. G. Daniels, printer. 1882.
Frenette, Yves. La Genèse d’une Communauté Canadienne-Française en Nouvelle-Angleterre: Lewiston, Maine. c1988. (Thesis (Ph.D.)–Université Laval, 1988) [University of Maine, Raymond H. Fogler Library, Special Collections]
Giguere, Lisa. Making Connections: Community Building in Lewiston, Maine, 1770-1815. Thesis (M.A.)–University of Southern Maine. 1996.
Hodgkin, Douglas I. Historic Lewiston: the Grange at Crowley’s Junction. Lewiston, Me. Sponsored by the Lewiston Historic Commission, 2003. (Auburn, Me. Central Maine Community College) [Maine State Library]
Kirk, Geneva. Historic Lewiston: Its Government. Lewiston, Me. Central Maine Vocational Technical Institute. 1982
Lewiston Historical Commission. Historic Lewiston: Franco-American Origins. Auburn, Me. Central Maine Vocational Technical Institute, 1974.
The Lewiston Strike of 1937: Student Research Projects, s25, Spring 1998, Bates College. Preface, introduction and compilation of data by Victoria Johnson. Lewiston, Me. Bates College. 1998. [Lewiston/Auburn College Library]
Libby, Gary W. Early Chinese Residents of Lewiston, Maine. Maine. G.W. Libby. c2006. [Maine State Library]
*Maine. Historic Preservation Commission. Augusta, Me. Text and photos from National Register of Historic Places: http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/nrhp/text/xxxxxxxx.PDF and http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/nrhp/photos/xxxxxxxx.PDF
Lyceum Hall: 86002285.PDF
Saint Mary’s General Hospital: 87002191.PDF
Saints Peter and Paul Church: 83000447.PDF
Scontras, Charles A. Two Decades of Organized Labor and Labor Politics in Maine 1880-1900. Orono, Me. University of Maine. Bureau of Labor Education. 1969.
Speer, Rick. “Documenting the Industrial Life of a Maine City.” Annotations. December. 2002.
National Register of Historic Places – Listings
Androscoggin Mill Block, 269-271 Park Street
Atkinson Building, 220 Lisbon Street
Bergin Block, 330 Lisbon Street
Bradford House, 54-56 Pine Street
Briggs, William, Homestead, 1470 Turner Street
Clifford, John D., House, 14–16 Ware Street
College Block–Lisbon Block, 248–274 Lisbon Street
Continental Mill Housing, 66-82 Oxford Street
Lewiston Commercial District
Continental Mill Housing, 66-82 Oxford Street
Cowan Mill, Island Mill Street
Dominican Block, 141-145 Lincoln Street
First Callahan Building, 276 Lisbon Street
First McGillicuddy Block, 133 Lisbon Street
First National Bank, 157–163 Main Street
Frye, Sen. William P., House, 453-461 Main Street
Grand Trunk Railroad Station, Lincoln Street
Hathorn Hall, Bates College, Bates College campus
Healey Asylum, 81 Ash Street
Holland, Captain, House, 142 College Street
Holland-Drew House, 377 Main Street
Jordan School, 35 Wood Street
Kora Temple, 11 Sabattus Street
Lewiston City Hall, Pine and Park Streets
Lewiston Public Library, Park and Pine Streets
Lewiston Trust and Safe Deposit Company, 46 Lisbon Street
Lord Block, 379 Lisbon Street
Lord, James C., House, 497 Main Street
Lower Lisbon Street Historic District, Lisbon Street between Cedar and Chestnut
Lyceum Hall, 49 Lisbon Street
The 1872 Lyceum Hall is a large red brick, granite trimmed, Italianate structure with a mansard roof. Built during a flurry of construction on Lisbon Street, this block was distinguished by the incorporation of an entertainment hall on the third floor. The hall held a capacity crowd of 1000 with the stage located at the street end and galleries on the other sides. Until construction of the Music Hall in 1877, Lyceum Hall acquired the distinction of being the city’s only theater. Later the space also served as a meeting hall for various organizations and societies. The entertainment hall no longer exists but the exterior is a reminder of commercial development on Lisbon Street in the 1870s.*
Maine Supply Company Building, 415–417 Lisbon Street
Manufacturer’s National Bank, 145 Lisbon Street
Marcotte Nursing Home, 100 Campus Avenue
Martel, Dr. Louis J., House, 122-124 Bartlett Street
Oak Street School, Oak Street
Odd Fellows Block, 182–190 Lisbon Street
Osgood Building, 129 Lisbon Street
Pilsbury Block, 200-210 Lisbon Street
Saint Mary’s General Hospital, 45 Golder Street
Saint Mary’s General Hospital is significant not only in its unusual architecture, but also in its history of humanitarian work in the field of medicine. The population of Lewiston-Auburn had grown to nearly 30,000 in 1888 and, with no hospital or orphanage, the Sisters of Charity created the first, but modest, Catholic hospital in Maine. By 1900 a new, larger facility was needed and was completed in 1902. It was basically unchanged for about 60 years.
This structure is the large three-story L-shaped brick building with sprawling modern additions at the rear. The unusual complex is distinguished by three octagonal towers that dominate the corners of the front and west side elevations between which are two gabled pavilions. In the latter half of the 20th century additions were made to the old building. By the early 21st century the now named St. Mary’s Health System has a complex of modern buildings whose campus includes the 1902 building.
Savings Bank Block, 215 Lisbon Street
Second Callahan Block, 282 Lisbon Street
St. Joseph’s Catholic Church, 253 Main Street
Saints Peter and Paul Church, 27 Bartlett Street
Saints Peter and Paul is the second largest church in New England, the only one in Maine to be faithfully modeled after a Gothic cathedral. Begun in 1905 and completed in 1938, after a 28-year lapse and the adoption of new plans, it was one of the last Gothic cathedral projects designed and completed in the United States. It is also one of the nation’s major Franco-American cultural monuments, a symbol of French aspirations within the American Catholic Church at a time of growing French militancy and self awareness.
The church, also known as the Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul, was designed after an early English or Norman cathedral, a “chiseled” mode of Gothic emphasizing solid mass which conveniently echoes the “Art Deco” aesthetic of the late 1920’s-1930’s. The walls purposely appear thick while the stained glass windows are proportionately quite small. The rose is modeled after that of Chartres.*
Trinity Episcopal Church, Bates and Spruce Streets
Union Block, 21–29 Lisbon Street
US Post Office–Lewiston Maine, 49 Ash Street
Wedgewood, Dr. Milton, House, 101 Pine Street