Charles Nelcon graduated from Cony High School in Augusta in 1924, Colby College, Waterville in 1928, and from Harvard Law School in 1931.
Nelson was admitted to the Maine bar in 1931, was secretary to his father, Representative John E. Nelson, in 1931 and 1932. He then engaged in the general practice of law in Augusta in 1932, and was city solicitor of Augusta 1934-1942. He was a delegate to the Republican National Convention in 1936.
Chief, State Arson Division, in 1941 and 1942, he entered the military service in 1942 as a second lieutenant in the United States Army Air Corps and served until discharged in 1946 as a lieutenant colonel with two years of service in the European Theater of Operations. He then became a member of the National Guard and Reserves.
A member of the State board of bar examiners 1946-1948, he was also mayor of Augusta in 1947 and 1948. Nelson was elected as a Republican to the Eighty-first and to the three succeeding Congresses (January 3, 1949-January 3, 1957), but was not a candidate for renomination in 1956.
He was a teacher at University of Florida at Gainesville 1957-1959, then returned to Maine as chief trial attorney for the State highway commission in 1959. Nelson was moderator of the town of West Bath in 1960 and died in Augusta June 8, 1962. His remains were cremated and the ashes buried on family property at Georgetown, Maine.