Maine: An Encyclopedia
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Mammals

Maine’s Department of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife has developed a summary table describing well-known mammals that make their home in the state.  To expand  that effective presentation, we have added some creatures to the table.

Features Size
Habitat Food Litter When Behavior

BEAVER

Largest rodent, flat scaly tail, large front teeth;
sexes indistinguishable
L 35-46″
T 11-17″
45-60 lbs
Rivers, streams, marshes, lakes, ponds Vegetation, tree twigs, water plants 4-5 April – May Nocturnal; cuts trees, builds lodges and dams

BOBCAT

Catlike, face ruff, black-tipped ears L 28-49″
T 3-7″
14-68 lbs
Scrubby country, broken forests Rabbits, mice, squirrels, porcupines, cave bats 2-3 April – May Active day and night, solitary animal

BLACK BEAR

Not only black, seen in auburn or cinnamon with patches of white on
chest and tips of paws
H 3-3½ ft
L 4½-6¼ft
203-595 lbs
Fairly remote
forests and swamps
Vegetation including twigs, leaves, buds, nuts, fruits 1-5
(avg 2)
Jan – March Nocturnal, solitary, mark trees by clawing and ripping off bark

COTTONTAIL RABBIT

Grayish-brown with some black, short tail L 14-18″
T 1-3″
2-4 lbs
Brushy areas, open woodlands, swamps, mountains Summer: grasses and herbs. Winter: seedlings, bark,
twigs, buds
2 or 3 per yr; 3-8 young
March-July Secretive, rarely ventures from cover

COYOTE

Doglike, narrow muzzle, greyish fur H 23-26″
L 41-52″
T 11-15″
20-40 lbs
Hilly, brushy areas, also open areas, adapted to suburbs Rabbits, mice, squirrels, birds, frogs, snakes, insects, deer 1-10 April – May Family is the social unit; strong swimmer

FISHER

Long, thin body L 33-40″
4-20 lbs
Forest, brushlands, grown-up clear cuts Small animals, porcupine, berries, nuts, 1-5 May – June Nocturnal; solitary, aggressive hunter

GRAY FOX

Doglike, black stripe
down back
H 14-15″
L 31-44″
T 8-17″
7-13 lbs
Wooded areas and brushlands Rabbits, small mammals, birds, insects, fruits, nuts 3-4 March-April Primarily nocturnal

RED FOX

Red coat, white-tipped, bushy tail L 35-40″
T 13-17″
8-15 lbs
Mixed cultivated
and wooded
areas, brushlands
Winter: birds and mammals Summer: vegetation and fruits 4-8 March – May Nocturnal; shy, nervous; good smell and hearing

MARTEN

Dark brown to blond fur, pointed snout, small ears L 19-27″
T 5-9″
1-4 lbs
Soft wood
dominated mixed forests
Small mammals, small birds and their eggs, insects, fruits, frogs 3-4 April – May Active day and night

MINK

Sleek body, short legs, soft dark fur L 19-28″
T 6-7″
2-4 lbs
Rivers, creeks, lakes, ponds and marshes Small animals, birds, fish, snakes, frogs 3-6 March – April Nocturnal; most time spent hunting

MOOSE

Dark brown body, large, long head, long, thin legs L 9′; H 6′
800-1,000 lbs
Forests, cows more likely at lower elevations Leaves, twigs of hardwood: e.g., cherry, aspen, birch, ash 1 or 2 May Often browse at edges of ponds in daylight

MUSKRAT

Small ears, short legs, scaly tail, brown fur, smaller front feet L 16-24″
T 7-12 ”
1-4 lbs
Wetlands Aquatic plants, crayfish, frogs, and fish 4-7 May – Oct. Nocturnal; build mud homesites

OPOSSUM

Greyish fur, scaly prehensile tail,
pouches in female
L 25-40″
T 10-21″
4-14 lbs
Open woods,
brushy wastelands, farmlands
Carrion, insects, frogs, birds, snakes, fruits, berries 1-14 March – April Nocturnal and solitary; “plays dead” as defense

RIVER OTTER

Long slender;
webbed feet,
brown fur
L 35-51″
T 11-20″
11-30 lbs
Wetlands, rivers, lakes, bays Fish, frogs, shellfish, and small mammals 1-4 March – April Active day & night; can travel long way from home

RACOON

Brown fur, black mask, long ringed tail L 23-37″
T 7-16″
12-48 lbs
Wetlands, some developed areas Prefers sweet foods, fruit, nuts, bird eggs, insects, frogs 4-5 April – May Nocturnal and solitary

RED SQUIRREL

Reddish-reddish gray fur on top; white or cream underside; white around eyes. Tail shorter, less bushy than other squirrels. L 11-13″
T 4-5″
7-9 oz.
Coniferous, deciduous and
mixed coniferous- deciduous forests
Insects, seeds, bark, nuts, fruits, mushrooms, pine seeds or cones. Also young birds, mice, rabbits, pine seeds. 3-7 Late winter Most active in early morning; late afternoon. Nests in hollows in the ground,  trees, logs, tree crotches.

SKUNK

Black coat with white
stripe down back; bushy black tail with white tip
L 20-31″
T 7-15″
6-14 lbs
Woodlands, grassy plains, suburbs Plants, grubs, insects,  small mammals, bird eggs & amphibians 4-7 April – May Nocturnal; sprays musk as defense

LONG-TAIL WEASEL

Long tail with black tip. Brown in summer,
white
in winter.
L 11-21 ”
T 3-6″
3-10 oz
Forest edge, brushland,
near water
Mice, rabbits birds, chipmunks, shrews and rats 4-9 April – May Nocturnal; tree climber

SHORT-TAIL WEASEL

Small, short, brown fur, white in winter, black
tipped tail year round.
L 7-13″
T 2-3″
1-6 oz
Brushland, open fields, wetlands Mainly mice but also shrews, baby rabbits and birds 4-9 May – June Nocturnal; tree climber, investigates holes when hunting

WHITE-TAILED DEER

Summer: reddish-brown,, winter: grayish – brown H 3-3½ ft
L 4½-6¾ft
M: 2-300 lbs.
F: 150-250
Forest edges,
swamp borders
Woody vegetation, green plants, nuts,
corn
1-3 May – June When alarmed it raises its tail to alert others

 




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This entry was last modified: May 27, 2017 01:39 AM

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